… интересные прозаические и поэтические варианты дружеских поздравлений.

В настоящее время эта сфера речевого общения, как и многие другие, динамично развивается. Значительно возросло количество поводов для поздравлений. В их ряду и Пасха, и День Святого Валентина, и самые неожиданные личные поводы – даже просто ясный, солнечный день.

В частных поздравлениях возрастает доля публичности. Поздравители нередко прибегают к радиопередачам Стол заказов на Русском радио или Презент на Европе плюс. Так, обращаются с приветствиями даже к тем, кто находится рядом в момент телефонного звонка на радио. В таких случаях текст оказывается очень коротким и спонтанным, поэтому грешит стандартными языковыми формами: «Я хочу поздравить мою жену Таню с Днем рождения. Я ее очень люблю! Желаю ей здоровья, успехов и процветания» (Презент: Европа плюс). Но публичность обращения и завершающий его подарок – заказанная песня сохраняют торжественность жанра.

Еще одна новая форма поздравления – бегущая строка на ТВ. В силу высокой стоимости такой текст, как правило, сводится к одному – и очень короткому – предложению: «Поздравляем Анну Сергеевну с рождением внука!». Передают поздравления также при помощи пейджеров и Интернета.

Особую популярность среди молодых приобрели поздравления, как и ‘записочки’, в местных газетах. Эти прозаические и стихотворные тексты имеют четкую адресатную направленность и составляются самими поздравителями. В таких публикациях находим и обращения по кличкам, и выражения из молодежного жаргона: «Наташка! Ты клевая девчонка! С Днем рождения тебя, малыш». Еще пример: «Мусик-пусик, мама и папа поздравляют тебя с Днем рождения. Не забывай, что мы тебя любим».

Итак, богатая история и динамичное состояние жанров поздравлений в настоящее время обещают при их детальном изучении содержательные выводы.



  1. Л.К.Граудина, Г.И.Миськевич. Теория и практика русского красноречия. М., 1989.


Получено 12.05.2000 Воронежский государственный технический университет


Н.Кувшинова (Воронеж, ВГТУ)

Nonverbal communication as an essential part of PR

Научный руководитель: к.филол.н., доц. Л.В.Квасова


В статье анализируется невербальная коммуникация в сфере общественных связей (PR).


Speaking in public is an increasingly common organizational communication activity. While it has always been true that administrators, board directors, and other executives have made speeches, today professional men and women of varied occupations are called upon to speak with increasing regularity. Many believe that perhaps the most critical skills any prospective organizational employee can possess are the ability to speak effectively and write clearly. Unfortunately, many bright young men and women graduate from college every year without having mastered these vital skills. In fact, it is often only when they are confronted with the realities of their first jobs that they recognize how frequently they must write reports and letters, inform and persuade varied audiences in public speaking situations.

Among the decisions each public speaker must make are the following:

  • how to choose a good speech subject;

  • how to analyze the audience's interests and values;

  • how to find and assess information;

  • how to organize information coherently;

  • how to deliver the speech effectively; and

  • how to use effectively the most basic form of communication – nonverbal.

Although nonverbal communication can stand alone, it frequently works hand in hand with speech. Our words carry part of the message, and nonverbal signals carry the rest. Together, the two modes of expression make a powerful whole, augmenting, reinforcing, and clarifying each other.

For example, imagine that you are running a meeting. You might clear you throat and straighten up in your chair as you say: I should like to call the meeting to order now. Later you might hold up three fingers and say: There are three things we need to decide today. As the meeting progresses, you might substitute gestures for comments: nodding your head and smiling to show approval, frowning to express reservation. You might also use nonverbal communication to regulate the flow of conversation: by tilting your head, for example. you could invite a colleague to continue with a comment. Finally, you might hedge your bets by saying one thing but implying another nonverbally.

Nonverbal communication plays a great role in business and PR, too. For one thing, it helps establish credibility and leadership potential. If you learn to manage the impression you create with your body language, facial characteristics, voice, and appearance, you can do a great deal to communicate that you are competent, trustworthy, and dynamic.

The face is a powerful source of nonverbal messages; it is the primary site for the expression of emotion, revealing both the type and the intensity of a person’s feelings. A person’s eyes are especially effective as a tool of communication. They can be used to indicate attention and interest, to in influence others, to regulate interaction, and to establish dominance.

Body language, whether intentional or unconscious, reveals a lot about a person’s emotions and attitudes.

Your tone of voice and other vocal characteristics augment verbal communication too.


Получено 11.05.2000 Воронежский государственный технический университет


С.Курапов (Воронеж, ВГТУ)

An analysis of a PR campaign by Johnson & Johnson

Научный руководитель: к.филол.н., доц. Л.В.Квасова


В статье предлагается возможное решение коммуникативного кризиса на примере PR-кампании известной фирмы.


Some years ago an article reported an incident with Johnson & Johnson. Here is the story:

On September 30, 1982, Johnson & Johnson faced a monumental PR crisis. Some reporters with the Chicago media introduced the information that several people had been poisoned by Tylenol capsules, a product manufactured by Johnson & Johnson subsidiary. The company set up a special strategy group consisting of top management.

  • The first problem for Johnson & Johnson was to make sure no more people were harmed. The company informed the mass media about the steps it was taking. Johnson & Johnson recalled all the 93,000 bottles in the production batch that had caused the Chicago poisonings and sent telegrams to doctors, hospitals, pharmacies and distributors urging them to pull the bottles from their shelves. Consumers were asked to exchange their capsules for Tylenol in tablet form.

  • A second public relations problem cropped up during the subsequent investigation of the incident. How would Johnson & Johnson conduct itself while the FBI and the Federal Drug Administration probed the crimes? The company decided to be open and frank with both the investigators and the news media. Johnson & Johnson made no denials, placed no blame, was candid in its release of information, and never tried to evade the truth.

  • Yet a third public relations problem concerned the reintroduction of the product to the market. Before the product was put back on the shelves consumer confidence had to be regained. A massive public relations campaign was planned with that goal in mind. Top Johnson & Johnson executives appeared on national TV shows. When the products were eventually reintroduced, it was done over a thirty-city teleconferencing network attended by representatives from more than 600 news organizations. Johnson & Johnson efforts were successful. Their PR office had collected about 125,000 press clippings, almost all of them favorable to the company. Four months after the capsules went back on the shelves, sales of Tylenol had climbed more than 65 percent of its pre-crisis level.

In general, the public relations campaign of Johnson & Johnson was very successful. There were many interesting and effective actions in it. But still some more elements could have been added into this PR-campaign that could have helped this company.

First of all, under these circumstances I would have tried and set up immediately a special strategy group consisting of top management and PR-specialists from outside (disregarding the special strategy group consisting only of top management which was set up by Johnson & Johnson). The specialists in this group would have been very knowledgeable, well-read, self-confident, with a realistic and, at the same time, non-ordinary way of thinking. I would have selected professionals with some positive experience in PR-campaigning in their career. This special strategy group would have included outside PR-specialists because the top-managers sometimes are not sufficiently experienced in such a sphere of activity as PR. I dare say they would not have been able to run a good and successful PR-campaign because of their specialization.

Within several days I would have organized a series of press conferences where I could have tried to explain the situation to the representatives of mass media and show the actions, which our company would have been supposed to make so as to improve the situation and put down the gossips connected with the ‘poisoning’ story.

Besides, I would have organized meetings with the consumers where I could have explained the actions already taken and the goals yet to achieve. After that I would have published a series of materials in the mass media and done my best so as to persuade the reporters of the mass media that Johnson & Johnson were doing everything it could to be open, frank and candid.

I think it could have been possible for Johnson & Johnson to make good and extensive publicity by performing all of these actions.

Получено 11.05.2000 Воронежский государственый технический университет

И.В. Королькова (Воронеж, ВГТУ)

Лингвистические аспекты психологических ‘уловок’ как элементов публичных выступлений

Научный руководитель: к.филол.н., доцент Л.В.Квасова


Приведена типология речевых приемов воздействия на собеседника (‘уловок’) в политическом дискурсе (на материале телевизионных выступлений).


Россия в настоящее время находится на переломном этапе развития. Все еще происходит переход от тоталитарного к правовому демократическому государству. Складывается новая политическая элита.

Одной из самых значительных современных социально-политических новаций является то, что в процесс преобразования общества вовлекается население нашей страны. Поэтому становится актуальным вопрос о речевых и психологических приемах, используемых правящей элитой.

Остановимся на уловках, применяемых политиками в различных выступлениях. Они основаны на раздражении оппонента, использовании чувства стыда, невнимательности, высмеивании его личных качеств и других особенностях поведения человека. Политик, который применяет уловки, как правило, хорошо знаком с глубинами человеческой психики.

Существует ряд наиболее распространенных уловок, употребляемых в телевизионных выступлениях.

  • чтение в сердцах, которое использовал в своей недавней кампании В. Жириновский, говоря: «Меня боятся, потому, что я откровенно называю людские проблемы. Благодаря мне люди узнают виновников своих бед по именам и фамилиям.»;

  • раздражение соперника путем не очень обоснованных, но умело сформулированных обвинений и упреков, касающихся конкретных дел политика (часто применяется по отношению к Г.Явлинскому);

  • использование специальных терминов, которые не распространены и непонятны для оппонента (реституция, маргинал и т.д.). Уловка удается в случае, если человек постеснялся уточнить, что под этим подразумевает оппонент;

  • перенос оценки высказывания на самого автора (применяется А.Говорухиным);

  • ошарашивание быстрым темпом, сменой обсуждаемых тем, постановкой различных вопросов (В. Жириновский);

  • довод к городовому, то есть однозначно негативное и никак не аргументированная реакция на любые доводы и факты: «Ну, это банально...», «Наивно...», (Г.Зюганов). Используется в ситуации, когда необходимо подавить оппонента;

  • использование прямого воздействия на подсознание оппонента, внешне повышающее его статус, одновременно играя на его самолюбии: «Я знаю Вас как крупного ученого, грамотного человека. Как же Вы не видите, что...»;

  • повышение психологической значимости доводов за счет аппеляции к собственному жизненному опыту: «Я 15 лет проработал в... и знаю ситуацию не по наслышке!». Ссылки на авторитеты, то есть использование фамилий и мнений известных личностей как абсолютных авторитетов: «...еще Петр, Вы говорите...»;

  • применение приема приклеивание ярлыков. Ярлык может содержать обидные эпитеты, насмешки, язвительные замечания и т.д. Такого рода прием часто приобретает характер ударов ниже пояса и издевок. Этот пример используют демократы, приклеивая коммунистам ярлыки терроризма, репрессий, и т.д.;

  • психологическое давление, стремление вести диалог очень громко, напористо. Используется политиком в случае недостаточности аргументации;

  • снижение ранга оппонента путем обвинения в некомпетентности: «Как может какой-то военный управлять страной!? Он явно марионетка в чьих-то руках!» При этом делаются замечания относительно внешнего вида: «Похоже, у Вас плохо со здоровьем...»;

  • применение сарказма: «Все хорошо в теории, а на практике-то...»;

  • подмазывание довода, особенно в сочетании с иронией, демонстрируемой, как тонкая лесть: «Ну, конечно, Вам виднее...»;

  • поспешное, даже демонстративное, формальное согласие. Содержание этой уловки заключается в формуле «Да, но...». Таким образом, на фоне поспешного, поверхностного соглашательства по существу отвергаются все предложения и доводы партнера;

  • постепенное вовлечение оппонента в идею, в защиту которой аргументы не приводятся. После многократного же повторения, идея становится актуальной;

  • из выдвинутых доводов оппонента выбирают самый уязвимый и публично разбивают его;

  • демонстрация обиды: «...Ах, Вы..., ну подождите, увидите ещё на что мы способны...»;

  • применение обвинений с целью обескуражить оппонента.

Существуют и другие не менее интересные и эффективные уловки: демонстративное умалчивание, манипулирование жанром (если выгодно, то новости без комментариев, если нет, то сплошной комментарий без новостей), изменение масштаба явлений.

Вышеперечисленные речевые приемы психологического воздействия, расчитанные на обыденное сознание реципиентов, в общем, не страшны, если понимать их суть и назначение, а также быть готовым к тому, что их применят.


Получено 12.05.2000 Воронежский государственный технический университет


Е.Горулева (Воронеж, ВГТУ)

The role of PR in modern life

Научный руководитель: к.филол.н., доцент Л.В.Квасова


Рассмотрены аспекты развития связей с общественностью в современной России.


Public relations is one of the main actively developing elements of the contemporary civilized marketing mechanism connected directly with the investigation and formation of persistently changing demand and offer for goods, production and services in all branches of world economy. In consequence, PR influence the increase in effectiveness of industrial and commercial activity and satisfaction of human requirements in other spheres of social life.

Success of every firm depends on PR technology. In spite of this fact, most Russian companies and firms do not realize the advantages of a well-planned and well-organized PR system. PR activity is one of the functions of management that helps to establish and maintain relations, mutual understanding, inclination and collaboration between an organization and its public. PR include solving different problems, using information about public opinion, working out proper measures. PR technology helps

  • the managers of the company to satisfy public interests as well as their own;

  • the whole company (the managers and the staff) to be ready to adopt to the changes of the surrounding world: PR predict events in advance;

  • the company to build a positive image and avoid negative rumours.

If an enterprise is good at creating a positive opinion of the target audience (including the employees of the enterprise), this success makes it a great deal easier to achieve the goals set by the managers.

The analysis of the importance of PR makes it obvious that it is necessary for everybody, who wants to achieve good results, to understand very well and always to remember that a positive opinion of the public about your company cannot appear by itself, it cannot be created without long-time tedious work, thinking over all possible results and versions of this work, in other words, without a well planned PR campaign.

In Russia PR appeared quite recently and nowadays this sphere is developing and improving. Now thousands of Russian firms, enterprises and organizations have PR specialists in their staff. At the same time there are no professionally trained specialists in public relations. In organizations, the functions of PR-men are carried out by journalists, psychologists, economists and managers who investigate and form public opinion.

I think that for the contemporary situation in Russia PR is one of the major professions. Everyone in this country (from the president to a dustman) has to read very attentively and understand the lines written by Dany Grysvold, a journalist and a PR-specialist, in Public Relations News:

Relation between people is a function that is displayed in all spheres of human activity such as economics, religion, education, the work of government – everything related to social and civil prosperity.

Public relations and relations between people are important in all spheres of human activity. The theory of PR tries to predict and prevent conflicts and possible causes of problems. If they nevertheless happen and appear PR-people help organizations, as well as separate individuals to cope with them and to neutralize their negative consequences.

As for the specialists in the so-called ‘Black PR’, who are doing their best to get more and more money out of illegal and immoral doings, it would be good to remind them of the words of a famous PR-specialist Sam Black:

Public Relations is the art and, at the same time, it is the science of achievement of harmony by mutual understanding built on the truth and full awareness.

Let us hope that PR in Russia will develop following this motto.


Получено 12.05.2000 Воронежский государственный технический университет


Е.Алёхина (Воронеж, ВГТУ)

What Public relations can do?


В статье анализируются возможности PR в сфере бизнеса.


Every business has a range of publics. What determines the success or failure of the business is the way these publics behave towards it, and this behavior is determined, or at any rate influenced, by attitude and by perception. These in turn are shaped by reputation. Managing the causal linkage between reputation, perception, attitude and behavior is what PR is all about. PR can support business objectives, explain policies, increase awareness, focus attention on issues, influence attitudes, help to restore credibility. PR has to be managed, and the way to do that is fundamentally no different from the way any other business activity is managed. PR consultants and in-house practitioners like to get involved in the planning and program stages. It gives them lots to do and makes demands on their expertise. In a personal portfolio of PR we can find some instructions how start developing a PR of your own. There are some practical entries. For instance: budgets – typical costs, guidelines and checklists – encapsulations of lessons to learn. The guidelines help the PR beginners take a detached, professional view. Public relations objectives should always bear a relationship to business objectives; and the closer that relationship is, the more effective the program will be. Planning and programs are an important part of the PR activities. If you want to achieve an objective you need a plan, and a carry out a plan you need a program. A plan should focus on one or two main ideas. The PR practitioner can get good results by using some fairly simple management techniques. There are some points, which PR cannot do. PR cannot confer credibility, unless content, source and method of delivery are credible, PR cannot do the job of advertising. PR cannot build reputations overnight, PR cannot sustain a reputation that is not deserved, PR cannot substitute for absent product. PR activities are perspective. Many world famous firms make use of their services which are well paid and it is but natural.


Получено 15.05.2000 Воронежский государственный технический университет


Н.Цыбина (Воронеж, ВГТУ)

What is needed to make a good career in PR?

Научный руководитель: к.филол.н., доц. Л.В.Квасова


В статье рассматривается соотношение теоретической и практической подготовки специалиста по связям с общественностью (PR), ее коммуникативный компонент.


Now it is possible to study PR. But I believe we shouldn’t hold it to be the only way to become a good PR-specialist. There were no professional PR-men in business before. But despite of the lack of official posts some employees themselves carried out communication with the customers, mass media, other firms, and so on. To a certain extent, they were PR-men.

At present, we can supplement our practical experience with theoretical knowledge. Conversely, on the base of the theory, we are able to practise PR.

Although lots of people study PR, it is likely that only few of them will become real professionals. Special education does not seem enough to be successful.

So, what is needed to make a good career in PR?

  • First of all, a PR-man should take a personal interest in his job. Otherwise, he might find it difficult to perform. There are many jobs that do not require one to take a personal interest in them. Day by day you are only to carry out the same actions. But in the case of PR the situation is quite different.

This kind of activity requires one to be independent, to have an ability to create, to come to unusial decisions. So, in my opinion, the lack of interest can make PR-activity not so effective as it might be.

  • Secondly, the ability to create is one of the main qualities that are really necessary for a PR-man. The PR-man is basically a creator. His job requires his thoughts and ideas to be non-ordinary. So, the person practising PR should be imaginative.

It is very important for creative work to take notice of details. The PR-man should be a good observer.

  • Third, the PR-man should be a good psychologist. He has to be able to deal with different people, with different characters. So, the essential quality a PR-man should have is the ability for looking at things the way the other person does it. It allows to find the right approach to every person who he is dealing with. It also might be helpful if you need to influence a person’s behavour.

In close connection with the stated above, it is useful for a PR-man to be a good actor. He should be able to play different communicative roles, depending upon the situation.

Those who practise PR should express their ideas briefly and clearly. A professional has to be able to depart from a straight answer – if the situation demands it.

From time to time, PR-men have to arrange business appointments and exhibitions. It is required of them to have special skills and abilities such as flexibility and communicability. This person should be a man of action and a good organizer. It is easier to gain success if you are a communicative, sociable person. A reserved man is badly suited to this job.

Another quality that is important for the PR-man is the tendency of being a winner. He should be confident of himself. He should not be afraid of failures.The first practical experience might not be successful but it does not signify that you are an unlucky person.

The desire of being a winner and the belief in success are very likely to give a good result.

And it has to be specially marked that professionals take genuine pleasure in improving their skills.


Получено 12.05.2000 Воронежский государственный технический университет

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